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    Conjoncture - 16 July 2019
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    The sub-Saharan Africa’s largest economy is having hard time to recover. External rebalancing has showed some progress. But imports remain well below pre-crisis levels. In addition, the rebuilding of FX reserves is being accompanied by increased financial vulnerability, which puts pressure on monetary policy as the authorities give the priority to exchange rate stability. Weak public finances are an additional constraint. In the short term, and despite its strong potential, the economy is expected to grow more slowly than the population. As well as improving macroeconomic stability, the authorities will have to address the deep-seated factors that are holding back the economy as a whole.
    Conjoncture - 22 May 2019
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    For most observers, the European elections are seen above all as a kind of political health report that is conducted simultaneously in all of the EU member countries. In this article, we will describe the main tendencies highlighted in the most recent polls and we will explore some of the possible consequences of these elections on the balance of power in Brussels and on the events that will follow thereafter.
    Conjoncture - 30 April 2019
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    The economic convergence of member states lies at the heart of thjavascript:void('Automatique')e initial project to create the eurozone, but it has followed a jagged path over the past twenty years. Convergence is a multifaceted concept that covers not only the criteria stipulated in the Maastricht Treaty but also growth dynamics and income dispersion. In the period before the Great Financial Crisis, nominal convergence was relatively complete, but progress towards real convergence was much more mixed. There are several major obstacles to a sustainable convergence within the European Monetary Union, including the lack of eurozone’s optimality, possibility of currency devaluations and macroeconomic stabilisation mechanisms.
    Through economic consolidation measures implemented since 2016, Egypt has corrected its macroeconomic imbalances and regained the confidence of international investors. Foreign currency liquidity has returned to satisfying levels, the public account deficit is narrowing, although debt service is maintaining the fiscal deficit at a high level. Inflation is still relatively high but easing. Economic prospects are favourable. So far, the macroeconomic recovery has failed to trigger new momentum capable of accelerating growth and creating jobs. The weight of public sector and a large informal sector reduce the economy’s responsiveness to positive macroeconomic signals. Structural reforms are necessary to preserve the achievements of ongoing reforms.

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