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The Netherlands is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a Prime Minister and a monarch.

The Netherlands is a small, densely populated country. It is among the richest countries in the world, with GDP per capita more than 50% above the EU average. Trade is crucial for the Netherlands. The seaport of Rotterdam is the largest in Europe and Schiphol International Airport is the third busiest airport in Europe, both in passenger terms and cargo volume. Exports of goods and services made up more than 80% of GDP in 2019. However, due to the large share of re-exports, the contribution of exports to GDP is limited to around 30%.

The importance of industrial activity has declined. In 2000, the manufacturing sector accounted for 15% of value added. By 2020, its share had declined to about 15%. Gas exploration has substantially declined due to production limitations after a series of mini-earthquakes in Groningen. The share of the mining sector in GDP declined to less than 0.5% in 2020 compared with 3.8% in 2008. By contrast, the share of public sector increased.As an open economy, the Netherlands has responded well to the challenges of globalisation. More than 20% of employees have flexible working arrangements, which is among the highest in the EU. A third of these are on-call employees. Thanks to its favourable fiscal environment and excellent infrastructure, the Netherlands is home to many multinational corporations. It is also an important financial centre.